Renaissance superstitions presented people with a confusing mix of enlightened insight into science, plus beliefs in the supernatural and pagan influences beyond one’s control. All publications are classified into six categories on the basis of their long-term citation characteristics (Table 2). This classification operates according to two criteria: whether a publication is selected by one of the algorithms and the total number of citations it has received from both review papers and patents since the publication until 2016.
Reichenbach maintains that philosophy of science includes a description of knowledge as it really is. Descriptive philosophy of science reconstructs scientists’ thinking processes in such a way that logical analysis can be performed on them, and it thus prepares the ground for the evaluation of these thoughts (Reichenbach 1938: Â§ 1). Discovery, by contrast, is the object of empiricalâ€”psychological, sociologicalâ€”study.
The New International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of The English Language (Encyclopedic edition), defines language as, the expression and communication of emotions or ideas between human beings by means of speech and hearing, the sounds spoken or heard being systematized and confirmed by usage among a given people over a given period of time.” From the above view, it suggests that a language is supposed to communicate the internal (original) idea and express what a particular speaker has within.
Schiller, F.C.S., 1917, Scientific Discovery and Logical Proofâ€, in C.J. Singer (ed.), Studies in the History and Method of Science (Volume 1), Oxford: Clarendon. This major discovery dating back to about 400,000 years ago offers insight in the socioeconomic dynamics of humans around that time which could provide new modes of adaptations during the Paleolithic age.
To examine this filtering effect, we applied the algorithms to all publications in the WoS database of types ‘letter’ and â€˜article’ that were published between 1990 and 1994 and received at least one citation during the first 24 months after publication.