Renaissance superstitions presented people with a confusing mix of enlightened insight into science, plus beliefs in the supernatural and pagan influences beyond one’s control. A human liver chip” — liver cells grown on a membrane along with several types of supporting cells — formed structures reminiscent of bile ducts and reacted to drugs similarly to intact livers, researchers report November 6 in Science Translational Medicine.
Not only do empirical studies of actual scientific discoveries inform philosophical thought about the structure and cognitive mechanisms of discovery, but researches in psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and related fields have become an integral part of philosophical analyses of the processes and conditions of the generation of new knowledge.
As a result of applying the algorithms, the share of publications with a low long-term impact – publications with a low number of citations from review papers and a low number of patent citations – drops to 17%; for all 1,805,245 publications this share is near 60%.
In a cosmic first, researchers have observed the most powerful and luminous yet known energy release – a trillion times more energetic than visible light – in the brightest type of electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe called gamma-ray bursts (GRBs).
The study, published in 2010 in the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, found that by the time children from the poorest families reached age 21, an additional $4,000 per year increased the time those children spent in school by a full year Researchers say the money also helps to reduce stressors within households, such as fighting and substance abuse.