Renaissance superstitions presented people with a confusing mix of enlightened insight into science, plus beliefs in the supernatural and pagan influences beyond one’s control. Reichenbach maintains that philosophy of science includes a description of knowledge as it really is. Descriptive philosophy of science reconstructs scientists’ thinking processes in such a way that logical analysis can be performed on them, and it thus prepares the ground for the evaluation of these thoughts (Reichenbach 1938: § 1). Discovery, by contrast, is the object of empirical—psychological, sociological—study.
An interdisciplinary team of researchers from multiple institutions — including the University of Washington — has received a two-year $1.7 million National Science Foundation grant to study coral growth. The algorithms are applied to all publications with WoS-types ‘article’ and ‘letter’ that are cited at least once in the first 2 years after publication.
Hempel, C.G., 1985, Thoughts in the Limitations of Discovery by Computer”, in K. Schaffner (ed.), Logic of Discovery and Diagnosis in Medicine, Berkeley: University of California Press, 115-22. Langley, P., H.A. Simon, G.L. Bradshaw, and J.M. Zytkow, 1987, Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative Processes, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Philosophical issues related to scientific discovery arise about the nature of human creativity, specifically about whether the eureka moment” can be analyzed and about whether there are rules (algorithms, guidelines, or heuristics) according to which such a novel insight can be brought about.
Your membership promotes scientific literacy and gives millions of students opportunities to fall in love with science. On the other hand, our algorithms find many publications not selected by Redner as the fourth column in Table 1shows. The combination of our algorithms and also Redner’s algorithm succeeded in identifying all remaining 11 publications.