Renaissance superstitions presented people with a confusing mix of enlightened insight into science, plus beliefs in the supernatural and pagan influences beyond one’s control. Not only do empirical studies of actual scientific discoveries inform philosophical thought about the structure and cognitive mechanisms of discovery, but researches in psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and related fields have become an integral part of philosophical analyses of the processes and conditions of the generation of new knowledge.
This dataset contains the 253,558 publications from the Web of Science database with types ‘article’ and ‘letter’ that were published between 1990 and 1994 and that belong to the 10% publications that are most cited in the first 24 months after publication.
Moreover, while each of these responses combines philosophical analyses of scientific discovery with empirical research on actual human cognition, different sets of resources are mobilized, ranging from AI research and cognitive science to historical studies of problem-solving procedures.
The overall effect of applying the algorithms is an increase of the share of â€˜breakthrough by proxy’ publications. Darden, L., 1991, Theory Change in Science: Strategies from Mendelian Genetics, New York: Oxford University Press. Recently we reported 1 on our algorithm-driven studies of ways to detect scientific manuscripts that already, within a few years after publication, show signs that they might contain a genuine breakthrough.
The algorithms reduce, to a large extent, the number of publications in the dataset and therewith could have a major effect on the constitution of the resulting dataset. The majority of recent philosophical studies of scientific discovery today focus on the act of generation of new knowledge.