It seems that every week and sometimes even everyday on the news there is a story about advances in medical science. Because genuine breakthroughs are usually only recognized after a long time, we compared the results of our algorithms for the detection of scientific breakthroughs at early stage with those of the long-term ‘baseline’ detection algorithm developed by Redner 6 Redner’s algorithm essentially selects those publications that have received more than 500 citations, regardless of the citation window.
William Whewell’s work, especially the two volumes of Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences of 1840, is an important contribution to the philosophical debates about scientific discovery precisely because he clearly separated the creative moment or happy thought” as he called it from other elements of scientific inquiry.
Reichenbach maintains that philosophy of science includes a description of knowledge as it really is. Descriptive philosophy of science reconstructs scientists’ thinking processes in such a way that logical analysis can be performed on them, and it thus prepares the ground for the evaluation of these thoughts (Reichenbach 1938: § 1). Discovery, by contrast, is the object of empirical—psychological, sociological—study.
The New International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of The English Language (Encyclopedic edition), defines language as, the expression and communication of emotions or ideas between human beings by means of speech and hearing, the sounds spoken or heard being systematized and confirmed by usage among a given people over a given period of time.” From the above view, it suggests that a language is supposed to communicate the internal (original) idea and express what a particular speaker has within.
Philosophical issues related to scientific discovery arise about the nature of human creativity, specifically about whether the eureka moment” can be analyzed and about whether there are rules (algorithms, guidelines, or heuristics) according to which such a novel insight can be brought about.