Language plays a very vital role in any human community-school, company, organization, group, home etc. Redner’s algorithm identified 9. As illustrated by these findings, certain scientific research can be very relevant for a scientific discovery that is later awarded a Nobel Prize, but the research itself does not need to have an extraordinary impact on science and does not need to meet the criteria of the algorithms.
Your membership promotes scientific literacy and gives millions of students opportunities to fall in love with science. On the other hand, our algorithms find many publications not selected by Redner as the fourth column in Table 1shows. The combination of our algorithms and also Redner’s algorithm succeeded in identifying all remaining 11 publications.
As a result of applying the algorithms, the share of publications with a low long-term impact – publications with a low number of citations from review papers and a low number of patent citations – drops to 17%; for all 1,805,245 publications this share is near 60%.
Our algorithms remove to a large extent those publications from a dataset that are considered not to be potential breakthroughs and the algorithms are able to detect, early on, publications that later show to be high-impact publications. Publications that are selected by the algorithms are to be considered â€˜potential’ breakthroughs as long as experts have not yet drawn the conclusion whether the scientific discovery is or is not an actual breakthrough.
The first is to conceive of discovery in terms of abductive reasoning ( section 6.1 ). The second is to conceive of discovery in terms of problem-solving algorithms, whereby heuristic rules aid the processing of available data and enhance the success in finding solutions to problems ( section 6.2 ). Both lines of argument rely on a broad conception of logic, whereby the logicâ€ of discovery amounts to a schematic account of the reasoning processes involved in knowledge generation.